Expression of IL-22 and IL-22 receptor (IL-22 R α ) in the pancreatic islet cells after CFA immunization. The relative mRNA expression levels of IL-22 and IL-22 Rα (A and B) was carried out in the pancreas of non-diabetic (4-week old), pre-diabetic (8-week old and 12-week old), and older (>16 week-old) diabetic NOD mice following CFA immunization. Female NOD mice were injected i.p. with either 100 μl of CFA emulsified in saline or with saline alone and sacrificed 48 hrs following immunization. Whole pancreatic tissue was homogenized and total RNA extracted for reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis using gene-specific primers. The results shown for each treatment and age group have been compared to 4-wk-old saline-treated mice and represent the average fold change of mRNA expression ± SEM. The relative expression of mRNA was taken from three pooled samples of RNA per group (with three mice per pooled sample). Age groups indicated by a double asterisk (**) are significantly different (P<0.05); treatments indicated by the asterisk (*) are significantly different from the saline control (P<0.05).