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Table 1 Different barriers and enhancers of reprogramming

From: Reprogramming barriers and enhancers: strategies to enhance the efficiency and kinetics of induced pluripotency

Enhancing strategies   Enhancers
Activation of enhancers C/EBPα [12]; UTF1 [53, 60]; Mef2c [60]; Tdgf1 [60]; FOXH1 [25]; GLIS1 [24]; mutated reprogramming factors [33, 35, 36]; MDM2 [56]; Bcl-2 [52]; CCL2 [14]; Kdm3a, Kdm3b, Kdm4c, and Kdm4b/2b [81]; Jhdm1a/1b [81, 87]; MOF [97]; Mbd3 [13, 104] (or their small molecule activators); Wnt/β-catenin signaling [20]; small molecule Pitstops 1 and 2 [80]; vitamin C [81].
  Barriers
Inhibition of barriers p53 [7, 11, 29, 40, 44, 5263], p57 [7], p38 [50], p16Ink4a/p19Arf, [52, 57, 58] p21Cip1 [7, 11, 29, 40, 44, 5263].
TGF-β [20, 40, 80], MAP kinase [20], Aurora A kinase [50], MEK/ERK [20, 46, 47], Gsk3, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways [69, 70], LATS2 [77], PKC [49], IP3K [50].
Native/somatic gene or transcriptional regulatory network (GRN/TRN) [115, 124, 125].
Specific members of ADAM family (e.g., ADAM7, ADAM21, ADAM29), endocytosis: (e.g., DRAM1, SLC17A5, ARSD), phosphatase: (e.g., PTPRJ, PTPRK, PTPN11) [80].
Chromatin regulators: (e.g., ATF7IP [80], MacroH2A [85, 86], Mbd3 (?) [8, 9, 103, 105, 106], Setdb1a [81].
Transcription factors: (e.g., TTF1, TTF2, TMF1, T [80]), Bright [23].
Fbxw7 (a member of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)) [78]
Lzts1, Ssbp3, Arx, Tfdp1, Nfe2, Ankrd22, Msx3, Dbx1, Lasp1, and Hspa8 [60].
  1. Notably, inhibition/depletion of barriers is considered as enhancing strategy