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Fig. 1 | Cell Regeneration

Fig. 1

From: RNA-binding proteins in mouse male germline stem cells: a mammalian perspective

Fig. 1

The life cycle of mRNAs. mRNAs undergo a series of modification events since they are transcribed from the genome. These processes are facilitated by the action of numerous RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) (shown as molten globules in the diagram), which interact with mRNAs at various regions through conserved RNA-binding domains. Interactions with RBPs and associated proteins render status of mRNAs as either repressive or active for protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of a cell. mRNAs can be stored in large RNA-protein complexes (RNA granules, cloud in green) in the cytoplasm when translation is not permitted. The dynamic exchange of mRNAs between cytoplasm and RNA granules is mediated by RBPs that are not fully characterized. Translational machinery, including tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and subunits are synthesized in the nucleolus and exported to cytoplasm in order for protein synthesis to occur. Following translation, tRNAs and ribosomal subunits can be recycled for additional rounds of translation. Major processes of mRNAs’ life cycle are indicated in numbers (black arrows). (1) Transcription; (2) splicing; (3) nuclear export; (4) post-transcriptional modification of mRNAs; (5) cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complex (RNA granule) formation; (6) cytoplasmic alternative polyadenylation (APA); (7) exchange of mRNAs between RNA granule and cytoplasm; (8) complex formation at the 5′- and 3′-UTRs of mRNAs, translation initiation; (9) translation; and (10) degradation. Blue rod: exons; red rod: untranslated regions of mRNA

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